Understand the 44 years history of Huilai from 1687 to 1731 from huilai County Annals of Kangxi and

From the impression of literature, film and television works, Kangxi was a more wise emperor, while Yongzheng was more harsh. However, the historical fact reflected in the rearranged and published Annals of Huilai County (hereinafter referred to as "Kang Zhi") and Yongzheng's Annals of Huilai County (hereinafter referred to as "Yong Zhi") is that the economic and social life of Yongzheng was better than that of Kangxi. The lower limit of Kangzhi was the twenty-sixth year of Kangxi (1687), and that of Yongzhi was the ninth year of Yongzheng (1731). From 1687 to 1731, only 44 years, Huilai, like the whole society at that time, has undergone profound changes. The historical materials of the two Chronicles truthfully and carefully reflect the changes of Huilai in all aspects during the 44 years, providing a clear mirror for the study of huilai history.


First, tax reduction


Tax is a yardstick to measure the extent of exploitation by emperors in feudal society.


1. There has been a slight increase in population.


Kangzhi: "In the 25th year of Kangxi, the number of men was 6,093... Eight thousand five hundred and five women." A total of 14,598 people.


Yongzhi: "In the eighth year of Yongzheng, the number of men was 6,124... Eight thousand six hundred and twenty-four women." A total of 14,748 people, an increase of only 150 in 44 years, the population growth is relatively slow.


2. Corvee labor was greatly reduced.


"Kang Zhi" : "corvee people strong all flat silver three thousand nine hundred sixty-six eight points four seven hundred and thirty cents."


"Yongzhi" : "in the eighth year of Yongzheng, he is in due time and his corvee is in charge of minzhuang Junping silver 1,754 23 qian 5 720 fen, and in case of runjia silver 744 27 qian 6 200 fen (saved as a reserve fund). Even without population growth, the burden of corvee labor has been reduced by 2,212 taels. It can be seen that with the development of society, the rulers gradually reduced the burden of the common people.


3, the land tax, ding kou tax reduction.


During the Reign of Emperor Kangxi, the land tax was calculated by grain. Kang Zhi: "Kangxi twenty-two years, land one thousand five hundred and thirty-five hectares of two fiber shan Po creek, continue in tests of shan one hundred and seventy-one hectares of 55 acres of field in each of the nine points and 9 mm 2 mm a two and seven micro fiber, two fields really design Po one thousand seven hundred and sixty hectares to sixty-six mu of two mile seven milli six silk five and nine micro four fiber, officials and tax farming in the summer of six thousand two hundred and twenty stone three six litres of 2 and 2 of 2, Continued in each year of reclamation official and civilian summer meters eight hundred and fifty-seven stone six bucket four liters of three copies of three pinch of five, eight millet five, the real official and civilian summer tax agricultural mulberry meters seven thousand seventy-eight stone three two spoons of three copies of five pinch of seven, eight millet five."


Customs duty shall be calculated in silver. "Kang Zhi" : "The total amount of silver compiled by the women was 8,563 coins and 21 cents and 5.61.2 cents."


Yongzheng years of land tax, ding kou tax is together. "Yongzhi" : "Total yongzheng eight years of dingkou field real money and grain,...... A total of 10,22528 cents of silver. 4.7.34 cents of silver. 5.15 cents of silver.


According to the calculation that the dingkou land tax has not been increased, the dingkou land tax in the eighth year of Yongzheng minus the dingkou land tax in the kangxi year, the actual land tax in the eighth year of Yongzheng is about 1662.69 liang of silver. Yongzheng eight years of rice price, can be found in the "yongzhi" basis: "in addition to change the nature of the price of silver 466 26 money six per cent seven six wire four suddenly four micro, folding meters eight hundred thirty-one stone four liters eight in four spoons." That is, one silver can buy 1.78 stone meters. According to this price calculation, yongzheng eight years of real land tax, about 2959.59 stone meters. And kangxi twenty-two years of 7078 stone decreased by more than four thousand stone. By this deduction, either the population tax will be reduced, or the land tax will be reduced, or both.


There was no change in the salt tax. Both Chronicles stated: "There are five salt farms: Pinghu, ancient chenggu, Gu Ding, Shenshan, Huilai. More than 678 liang of salt."


As yongzhi said, "... Apart from being offered by the government, there is no slight increase in tax and it is rude to wipe the people's livelihood." During the reign of Yongzheng, taxes were much lighter than during the reign of Kangxi.


Second, the imperial examination was strongly supported


In feudal society, especially in the Ming and Qing dynasties, the imperial examination was a great event. During the reign of Emperor Yongzheng, with the economic development and social stability, the imperial examination received more attention and support.


During and during the period from Kangxi to Yongzheng, the county schools increased in the income of funds. "Kang Zhi" recorded that during the kangxi years, the income of the school included "learning field, learning mountain, learning ground, learning shop, Wenchang Pavilion field, Wenchang pavilion shop". And "Yongzhi" increased the "feng Bin Xingtian", visible income increased. "Yongzhi" : "Feng Bin Xingtian in Zhoutian, land name mountain, cattle road ridge and other places, 17 stone; Shenquan Mountain and other places three stone eight bucket, lai Yanxing, Lai Shangxing according to this field. Haifeng county magistrate Bai Zhang department county affairs, donated salaries to buy you first all field twenty-three mu three points, the 'family living'. In Longxidu, Tang Yao sent Confucianism with respect to the inner field, which was the capital of scholars. Down the road, down the dumps have been stacked and bin xing's gifts have been either carried out or abolished. Together with our official knowledge of the county affairs, Zhang Yuan, we have chosen the county affairs of every member of your family. The rent has been collected and the bin xing will be held in Ming Lun Hall on every big occasion. As income increased, the grand ceremony was held in the year of "Big Ratio", which was a great event in Huilai at that time.


Confucian teaching instruction and training salary: "Confucian teaching instruction and training of the second officer, silver 31125 fen (except for the shortage of funds), the actual amount of silver is 29.28 fen 8.0%, every time a silver 127.03 fen." The salaries were the same as those of dian Shi, Kuitan Garrison And Beishan Post, more than 11 tael less than that of the magistrate, "in forty-five days (except for the shortage), the actual amount of silver was 42.266.5%, and that of feng Runjia silver was twenty-two or three quarters 2.4%. the difference was not very large.


Yongzheng years linsheng subsidies are also quite good. "Yongzhi" : "linsheng dieu grain forty-eight liang (in addition to the amount of shortage), is real branch silver forty-five five money a zero." The cost of supporting linsheng has exceeded the salary of the county magistrate. "Yongzhi · Volume 8 · School" points out the number of linsheng at that time: "rated at linsheng 20, such as hyperplasia, epiphytes without quota. And kangxi years, only: "year deposit silver 25 24 money four into all students through the imperial examination travel expenses." (Kang Zhi)


More prominently, yongzhi recorded the generous treatment of Confucius' descendants at that time. Volume VIII. Biography of the Holy Man: "... To fifty-nine generations of Sun Yan, migrated to Huilai County Danidu Xiantang li and county seat Guanxiang, Wuning place, to the top of the yi si, born four: Kong Chuanlong, Kong Shi, Kong Jizhou, Kong Guangai. In this school, wenmiao Jun Ben, citing examples to petition constitutional approval, allow Kong surname excellent free from service, le Stone school."


Third, from the sacrificial situation, we can also see the economic development


The first is the increase in shrines. In the book of two Chronicles, jiu shi, Shi Shi temple, Qi Sheng Temple, Ming Huan Temple and other temples introduced in Kangzhi, Yongzhi have been introduced. "Yongzhi" added "Guan Di three generations of temple, shuangzhong temple, loyalty and justice xiao Di temple, xiao Festival temple". From the name, when the people for loyalty, filial piety festival highly popular.


The second is bigger. To take xianshi Temple as an example, the Temple of Xianshi in yongzheng's reign definitely exceeded that in Kangxi's reign. In the reign of Yongzheng, the temple of the master was added with the names of the main hall and The Four paraphernies. The names of the ten sages (Min Sun, Ran Yong, Duanmui, Zhong You, Bu Shang, Ran Geng, Zai Yu, Ran Qiu, Guan Yan, And Zhuanxun) were on both sides of the second east and the second west of the temple. These changes can be seen that the construction of places of worship has been strengthened and social and economic development has been achieved.


And the change of sacrificial offerings can be seen that people were more particular about the sacrificial rites.


Kang Zhi: "Master display: sheep a, swine a, xing 2, Trip 8, composition 2, GUI 2, silk 1, jue 3, beans eight."


"Yong Zhi" : "Superior teacher's right display (according to the plan of sacrificial vessels awarded by the third year of Yong Zheng department) : Li Shen making silk 1 (white), white Sijue 3, niu 1, Yang 1, swine 1, deng 1, xing 2, fu 2, GUI 2, Trip 10, bean 10, wine 1."


Not only did the sacrificial vessels increase the white count and wine, but the sacrificial offerings also increased the ox. Not only was there an increase in the display of the official position, but also in the display of the four matching positions and the display of the ten sage positions. Not only the display of the Temple of the master is more exquisite, the display of the Shrine is the same, here is not a list.


Yongzhi also recorded in detail the furnishings of Wenchang Temple, Sheji Altar, Chenghuang Temple and three Generations of Guan Gong temple, which were not found in Kangzhi. It can be seen that sacrifice has become a major event in People's Daily life during the reign of Yongzheng.


4. Greater social stability


In jianzhi Evolution, the major events recorded in kangxi's reign were mostly related to military affairs. In the first year of Kangxi, four years to build pier, six years to build camp fort, fourteen years to dredge moats, twenty-one years to rebuild pier 5, thirty-eight years to build Jinghai, god spring two cities, such as this, too numerous to list, people corvee can be less? During the reign of Yongzheng, the major events were already different, mostly related to people's livelihood, culture and sacrifice. In addition, in December of the seventh year of Yongzheng (1729), the Beishan Post was abolished and a new Kuitan Inspection department was established. "Yongzhi · volume one of the construction of the evolution" : "Yongzheng seven years, the magistrate zhang 玿 The United States to Kwai Tan township for the exchanges of Fujian and Guangdong Kong road, the boundary chongshan, far from the county, the commissioner must manage, should set up a patrol in Kwai Tan in 剳 thieves and private xiao......" It can be seen that At that time, Kwai Tan has become the key traffic road of Fujian and Guangdong.