The influence of Kangxi's relocation to Huilai County


According to "Huilai County Annals" recorded: "In the first year of Kangxi, in The April of The year of Nonyin, because of the sea atmosphere, we were ordered to relocate acres of land, survey and establish the boundary, expelling the coastal areas to 30 li, set up the boundary fordefense, and ordered the residents to move into the interior. Moved to forty-three acres of land. Since chaoyang border peace village, to the county fupu, Jinghai post stop, the establishment of pier six.


What the hell is this? In the first year of Kangxi (1662), the Qing court ordered coastal people to move to the interior to prevent the coastal people from supporting Zheng Chenggong's military forces. In the eighth year of Emperor Kangxi's Reign (1669), zheng's army had retreated to Taiwan, so he ordered the exhibition. In the seventeenth year of Kangxi (1678), due to military needs, some local people were moved to the original limits. From the 20th year to the 22nd year of Kangxi (1681-1683), the Qing court pacified the Zheng Army and unified Taiwan before ordering the complete restoration of the border.


The nationwide relocation in the first year of Kangxi exerted a great influence on the whole country, especially guangdong, Fujian and other coastal areas close to Taiwan. Huilai was a coastal county of chaozhou capital at that time, which was inevitably deeply involved. In the annals of Huilai County compiled by zhang Bingzheng, the magistrate of Huilai county with the thought of putting people first, he faithfully recorded this history. How many huilai people's blood and tears were hidden in a short paragraph of words above!


First, the reason -- "The sea atmosphere has not disappeared"


The only reason for the move was the threat posed by zheng Chenggong's military force against the Qing Court. In order to isolate Zheng Chenggong, the desperate measures were taken.


In the thirteenth year of shunzhi (1656), zheng Chenggong appeared on the seashore and frequently attacked the southeast coast, especially guangdong and Fujian, so the Qing Court issued a "sea ban" : "Inch plate is not allowed to go into the sea, piece of sail is not allowed to enter." In an attempt to trap Zheng jiajun on the Dead Sea, fishing boats and merchant vessels were not only banned from fishing and trading, but also from entering the harbor. Coastal residents in Fujian and Guangdong were the first to suffer, cutting off many of their economic sources, and then fishermen and traders who made a living in the remote South China Sea islands.


In The first year of Kangxi (1661), Zheng chenggong successfully landed in Taiwan via Penghu and won many victories all the way. In April 1661, the First year of Kangxi, the Qing government issued an even more thorough and brutal "relocation order" : "The coastal people were ordered to move 50 li inland, so as to avoid relieving Taiwan." Coastal residents were forced to move within three days, leaving their homes and their lives devastated.


Two, after -- "the first move to move again"


Kangxi's Annals of Huilai County specifically recorded the whole process of the relocation of Huilai County:


"In the first year of Kangxi, in The fourth month of Ren Yin... To forty-three hectares of land."


"In August 2000, magistrate Li Ji tong visited and mapped, to three years later, moved to hundreds of villages and towns, 1,663 hectares of land, with grain 1,374 men, 1,770 women."


"Four years b third spring first month, build the pier, northeast from chaoyang junction stone pit, to the south gate of the county pier stop, southwest from the south gate, to haifeng junction hanging flag hill stop, a total of twenty-nine pier, pier cut out the edge ditch, wide five feet, a zhang deep."


"Six years of ding did not build camp fort, built in the east of the county diameter mouth, forty soldiers to keep it; County west built in Longjiang, dial soldiers hundred keep it. Insert vertical pile grid everywhere: Huizheng bridge grid, four bridge grid, Linzhao bridge grid, Longjiang bridge grid."


"Eight years you spring February, exhibition boundary fortification, the first move continued to move, all exhibition complex, reclamation of land. After three years of promotion, and the withdrawal of pile grid, another edge in haikou."


In the first year of Kangxi (1662), the qing Government sent two ministers, Keokun and Jie Tui, to take charge of the relocation. All the residents along the long coastline from Shandong to Guangdong were moved 30 to 50 li. All the ships along the coastline were burned down and no pieces of board were allowed to remain. For the first time, Huilai county "rejected 30 li from coastal areas", and moved 43 hectares of land, accounting for 1.76% of the county's agricultural production land. At that time, the coastline of Huilai was more than 100 miles, and the arable land was not much.


In the third year of Emperor Kangxi's Reign (1664), after Zheng Chenggong fully recovered Taiwan, the Qing court was so angry that it issued the "relocation order" again. This time, Yilibu and Shuotu were in charge of it. They forced guangdong coastal residents from Raoping, Chenghai, Jieyang, Chaoyang, Huilai to Lianjiang, Hepu, Qinzhou and other 24 counties to move inland again. It also ordered that all houses outside the boundary be demolished, that no cultivation be allowed in the fields, that no fishermen be allowed to go out to sea, and that those who crossed the boundary be punished. Do completely "raze its ground, empty person". Twice, huilai county moved to 1663 hectares of land, accounting for 67.88% of the county's agricultural production land; There were 1374 men and 1770 women in the migration, totaling 3144 people, accounting for 26.56% of the county. Huilai county has a total of 5 capitals, "moved to Dani and Longjing counties, huilai, Youtou, Longxi half of the three capitals", the relocation area accounts for the majority of the county.


As this was far from enough, the Qing Court also introduced a series of measures to "strengthen the wall and clear the wilderness" :


Kangxi four years (1665), once again build pier, only a small Huilai county, build pier 29, together with the kangxi first year built 6, a total of 35 pier. The pier outside the excavation of deep ditch, 5 feet wide, 1 zhang deep. "A village into, cost to three or four daughters, a pier and a half." Waste money and waste people.


In the sixth year of Kangxi (1667), jianying fort was built, and Jingkou Fort was built in the east of Huilai with 40 garrison soldiers. In the west to build longjiang fort, 100 garrison.


Vertical piles are inserted everywhere. Huilai county vertical grid 4: Huizheng bridge grid, four bridge grid, Linzhao bridge grid, Longjiang bridge grid.


The process of coastal migration was not so much a process of migration as of unprecedented slaughter and plunder.


First, the time limit is tight. According to the records: "The period of confinement was only three days, which was not known far away, and was not believed near. And then the next day comes, and one hour you see the rich man abandon his body, the poor man have a huge body, and his wife swoon, with n basket and papers."


The other is to set fire. "On the first day of the order, I brought my wife and children to the road, set fire to her house and left no stone."


Third, ruthless killing. For residents who refuse to move, it is a "kill" word. Qing court rulers in this respect has never been soft, "half of the people died, pillow besmear. Even those who were able to travel to the mainland had no grain to eat.


Moving the miserable cool, as qu Dajun in "Guangdong New Language" in the writing: "since the east of Guangdong, living things, not worse than this."


In the late period of Sun Rumou's term as huilai county magistrate (three years to ten years during the Kangxi Period), the relocation of the boundary was finally relaxed. In the fourth year of kangxi's Reign (1665), Wang Lairen, governor of Guangdong province, toured the coastal areas and saw the miserable life of the people who moved in. He reported the actual situation to the court, hoping that the emperor could allow the displaced people to return to their original places of residence. In the spring of the seventh year of Kangxi (1668), Wang Lairen died of illness. In 1669, zhou Youde, governor of Guangdong and Guangxi, was sent by the imperial court to explore the coastal areas. In the same year, the imperial court granted Huilai permission to expand the boundary, but it was still fortified and set up another border in Haikou.


Huilai county magistrate Zhang Bingzheng excitedly wrote "Xi Exhibition bound" : "Wanli whole Xinjiang painting division, in today's repeated class cultivation. Dumpling jingcheng remote island, chicken duck will recognize the young in the water. Wang Ze encyclical three years wide fu, smoke lock a line of clouds. Ring suburb smell noisy spring society, qi Eulogy grace light just sea ð£


In order to thank Wang Lairen and Zhou Youde, the people of Huilai built "Ergong Temples" in Jinghai, Lanbiao, Longjiang, Shenquan and Senior places to commemorate governor Wang Lairen and governor Zhou Youde in a grand way.


Three, influence -- "everywhere 嗸嗸"


How far does relocation involve? According to Ruan Minxi's "Record of Maritime Sightings" : "from liaodong to Guangdong, all migrated, built short walls, erected boundary markers, and allocated troops to guard, and those who left the boundary died, and the people lost their jobs and died by hundreds of millions." "By the billions" is literary exaggeration. In Guangdong, over 5.31 million mu of land was abandoned, and millions of scholars and civilians were relocated to 28 counties and counties, reaching into areas where farmland and lu are connected and agriculture, industry and commerce are developed. Displaced people were forced to leave their homeland, supporting the old and the young, wandering the roads, begging for food, starving to death, disease, countless.


It may be impossible to fully estimate the impact of the relocation on the country as a whole, taking Huilai county as an example.


"Black and wild 嗸嗸" is huilai county magistrate Zhang Bingzheng's sad summary of the impact of relocation. His main compiled Kangxi twenty-six years "Huilai County annals" "tribute fu products" : "Poor soil ear, when the migration, everywhere 嗸嗸. After the exhibition, Aihong collected, but the exiles had it. Although the crisscross paths are cultivated, and the dirty lai has it, and the caressing of the word is also heart toil." Huilai was originally a poor mountain and evil water. During the period of relocation, the city was covered with sorrow. After the opening of the city, even though the imperial court "Gave three years of fu to Wang Ze", the people were still struggling and living a miserable life.


Based on the records in Chaozhou Prefecture Annals and Huilai County Annals by Kangxi, Huilai County Annals by Yongzheng and Chaozhou Prefecture Annals by Qianlong, the changes of population and agricultural income in Huilai County from the 14th year of Shunzhi (1657) to the 28th year of Qianlong (1763) are as follows:


In the fourteenth year of Shunzhi (1657), there were 14,985 men and women in Huilai county, including 6,231 adult men and 8,754 women (female population). Fields, ponds, Poxi 2493 acres, summer tax agricultural mulberry rice 75 stone 5 bucket 5 liters, autumn grain rice 11365 stone 5 bucket 1 liter.


In the seventeenth year of Shunzhi (1660), huilai County had a total population of 21,211 people (including old and young), including 11,857 men.


The first year of Kangxi (1662), the first move, Huilai county migrated 43 ares 42 acres, leaving 2450 ares 57 acres, the actual harvest of rice 11281 stone 5 liters 8 liters.


In the third year of Kangxi (1664), after the second relocation, there were 4857 males and 6984 females in the county.


In the 11th year of the Reign of Emperor Kangxi (1672), there were 5,264 males and 7,478 females. Real field, mountain pond, Pu Xi 1535 ares 10 mu, the actual harvest of 6220 stone 3 bucket 6 liters.


In the twenty-second year of the Reign of Emperor Kangxi (1683), there were 5,542 males and 7,806 females. Fields, ponds, Poxi 1706 ares 66 acres, the actual harvest of 7078 stone meters.


In the 25th year of The Reign of Emperor Kangxi (1686), there were 6,093 men and 8,505 women.


Under Kangxi's rule, especially in the middle and late period, the national strength became stronger and stronger, but The economy of Huilai was in a chronic condition, with slow population growth and serious damage to agricultural production, which could not recover for a long time. It was not until the Reign of Emperor Qianlong that they eased up. Zhou Shuoxun, in the 28th year of Qianlong's Reign (1763), "Chaozhou Prefecture records" : "The current recruitment of each county is in Dingkou... In Huilai county, there were 6,231 males and 8,754 women, making a total of 14,985 females. ... And from the first year of Qianlong to 21 years, the flourishing times never add two thousand nine hundred ding fu." The taxing population finally recovered to the level of 14 years of Shunzhi. At the same time, the county tax land 2561 hectares of 10 mu, the actual harvest of 11,737 stone 9 bucket 6 liters of rice, slightly more than the 14 years of shunzhi harvest.


The numbers are dry and fail to give us a strong impression. Let's take a look at some relevant data records:


"From Jiangsu and Zhejiang, arrived in Fujian and Guangdong, thousands of miles of fertile soil donated as penghao, the aborigines do flow."


"Later, the army gallop shot, the rocket burned its room, people huanghuang birds and beasts scattered, fire tired month does not extinguish. Thousands of naval warships were burned at the same time, saying, 'We have no resources to use. '"


"Each place hangs a card, yue: dare to go out of bounds person cut!"


"A few steps out of bounds, and you do it. Soldiers patrolled the border from time to time. There is a border crossing, a patrol, and beheaded ".


"The boundary is the zhen both cut, consider out of the no ban also, so along the border choke build village, pier, soldiers keep it. The villagers outside the town collected silver from each household and went into service in groups. ... A village into, cost to three or four daughters, a pier and a half. Cuffed and beaten with whips, the people who died in the rush know nothing."




Huilai county is only an epitome, and is not a typical epitome, relative to other relocation time as long as 20 years of the region, suffered only 8 years of huilai or relatively lucky. However, even the "lucky" Huilai still paid a full 106 years (1657 ~ 1763) to make the county's economy and population back to the origin of 100 years ago. This is the history of blood and tears of huilai people, but also the tragic tragedy in Chinese history!


Conclusion -- Negative attitude


The records were official and to a large extent represented the position and views of the government at that time. How did the officials of the Qing Dynasty comment on the move? Quote the Chronicles compiled by the Qing Dynasty, see as "food king salary" court officials is what kind of attitude. Records and comments on the relocation of the Territory during the Reign of Emperor Kangxi in Chaozhou Prefecture Annals compiled by Lin Hangxue, governor of Chaozhou in the Qing Dynasty (16th to 27th year of the Reign of Emperor Kangxi) :


As spoils of war, we have brought back spoils of war. In the first year of Kangxi, Kole Kun, Ma Jietui, King Shang Kexi, generals Wang Guoguang, Shen Yongzhong, and Yang Yuming, prefect of tong Pingnan, surveyed six counties. The seaside built a small dike for the boundary, so that residents moved into the dike, who died, and haikou still spread. Three years later, he sent another survey, including Iribu Tsuzuka, Mashoto, kai Fan Yuan, generals and commanders. Haiyang moved to the four capitals of Longxi, Shangpu, Dongpu and Nangui, and half of the three capitals of Qiuxi, Jiangdong and Shuinan. Chaoyang moved to zhipu, Zhushan, Deanzhan, Shapu and Longjing, and half of the three eastern capitals of Fukuo, Xiashan and Juh. Jieyang moved to a beautiful, peach mountain half; Raoping moved to Longyan, Xuanhua and Xinning; Huilai moved to Dani and Longjing counties, half of the three capitals of Huilai, Youtou and Longxi. Chenghai is removed to Shangwai, Huawai, Xialiwai, Pengzhou, Tuopu and Tuo Jiang, leaving only one capital in the spectuo River. In the fifth year of the year, the whole county is abandoned and left to guard the land. Seven years, the king of the hospital to the office of the thin, governor zhou Youde decided to go, people began to celebrate Su Sheng.


Zhou Youde "resolutely", we can see that he was under a lot of pressure, this pressure is from the court. From "the beginning of the people celebrate su Sheng", we can imagine that people hear the news of the exhibition is how excited. If it had not been for the previous relocation of how unpopular, to the people caused a tragic disaster, how can like the jubilation of the amnesty?


Since it is an unpopular government action, of course it will be resisted. It was Su Li of Jieshi who directly resisted the relocation, and Lin Hangxue's Records of Chaozhou Prefecture -- The Victory of General Wang's Chaohui:


Kangxi three years to continue to move. Soil bensu li according to jieshi fu from, send its party plunder Chaoyang, Hui to place. General Wang Guoguang sent troops to suppress it, beheaded more than a thousand, the rest of the party to collapse. Find, fan yuan commander troops zheng Li, a drum and array chu, jieshi ping.


This is standing in praise of Wang Guoguang's position to write this matter, a little vague language. Suri "fu Cong", to posterity left a lot of imagination space, why on earth "Fu Cong"? Let's take a look at the Annals of Huilai County compiled by Zhang Bingzheng -- The Change of Suli against Migration:


Kangxi moved to the first year, two years of continued relocation. Magistrate Li Jitong's adult collating mapping, set up a ditch. Gareshi Suri is resistant, and the coast is well defended. Its party Zheng SAN according to Longjiang, Yu Huang according to god Spring, Chen Yanhong according to jinghai. At the beginning of August 7, 2003, zheng Nan general Wang Guoguang supervisor from chaoda Hui, to Jinghai Datang Po, Smoke hong refused, the enemy was given the head, then long drive to the city. The first ten days, Longjiang Zheng three drum and annihilation, God Spring yuhuang flee. Division by the Changqing and pingfan joint suppression, li went to fight south Tang Port, defeated body death, master triumphantly returned.


From a "anti" word, we can still see some signs. It is not hard to see that the practitioners of the annals recorded the actions of the "resisters" from an objective point of view, and the editors' negation of the movement can be seen from another side.