Huilai County School in Ming and Qing Dynasties


Huilai is known as "zou Lu on the seashore". In the 16th year of Wanli in Ming Dynasty (1588), huilai county, with a population of more than 20,000 people and a county of only 60 years, was selected by 4 people (Xie Zhengmeng, Lin Shizhong, Fang Yiyi and Wang Juhan). "Four studies in one subject" made Huilai county famous for a while and became a beautiful story in the past dynasties. The situation of Huilai County studies in the Ming and Qing dynasties is unknown to most people today. From the introduction of Kangxi edition huilai County Records and Yongzheng edition Huilai County Records, we can have a glimpse of the general situation of the county studies at that time.



First, the east


In kangxi's edition of Huilai County Annals · School: "There are grain barns in yu and yong barns in Zhou. Huixue originated from the Ming Dynasty, beginning with Yin and Yang. Early based on north, change bu in the east, and are wide narrow. First built on the right, then moved to the left. Former order in the palace, can be described as room and bottom method, yuan yong and 墍 zi yi." This is a simple summary of the change process of Huilai Academy in Ming and Qing Dynasties.


In the fifth year of the Reign of Emperor Jiajing of the Ming Dynasty (1525), jiang En, the second county magistrate of Huilai, built the county school at the same time. The School palace was located in the north of the county seat, and scholars from the five capitals of Huilai county (Huilai, Dani, Youtou, Longjing and Longxi) gathered here to study. In the 18th year of Jiajing (1538), the Academy was destroyed by a typhoon. In the 19th year of The Reign of Emperor Jiajing (1539), Wei Yigong and Zhu Xie were ordered to rebuild the school palace, which was located in the east of the county seat, namely the current site of Huilai No.1 Middle School. The School palace "sits in the kuixiang ding concurrently ziwu, twenty zhang five feet five inches high, thirty-nine zhang nine feet deep, nineteen zhang six feet wide" (Kangxi edition of "Huilai County Annals · School"). After continuous reconstruction, expansion, repair, to the ninth year of The Qing Dynasty Yongzheng (1731), the School of a little scale.


After entering the "holy thoroughfare", the road was rough and muddy in spring and summer. In the forty-first year of Wanli of the Ming Dynasty (1613), Huang Juan and Zhang Naixin, together with the squiremen, donated money to build the road. All the roads in front of the School palace were paved with stone, "from rock to rock, from horizontal to straight, from several feet wide, to over twenty zhang" (Yongzheng edition huilai County Annals · Xiu Confucianism Ting Lu Inscription). At both ends of the road, there are two memorial archways facing each other, qifeng Square in the west and Tengjiao Square in the east. These two memorial archways were built in April 1680 by Zhang Bingzheng, the county magistrate of the Qing Dynasty. By the forty-ninth year of Kangxi (1720), Magistrate Wang carried out reconstruction of Qifeng Fang and Tengjiao Fang.


There is a wall in the middle of Qi Feng Fang and Teng Jiao Fang, which blocks the lingxing stone door of the school palace, so as to avoid people passing by having a full view of the inside of the school palace.


On the south side of the wall is the Academy. The pond in front of the academy is called pangong in ancient times. Yuan yuan originally sat in front of lingxing Stone gate, on the north side of the wall. Zhaobi south there is a large pond, the original scholar Fang Daqian, Weng Duanyang, member outside fang Yijiao all. In the thirty-third year of Jiajing (1554), Lin Chunxiu, the county magistrate, used the empty land outside the east gate, Yanfu Garden, Xinshi Garden and other poa as an exchange, "around the dike zhang xu, cut into a big pond, a total of thirteen acres" (Kangxi edition of Huilai County Chronicles · School), as the new academy pond, take its open and clear. By dongzhai (county learning instruction), Xizhai (county learning discipline) take turns to harvest fish. In the 36th year of Wanli (1608), you Zhiguang, the county magistrate, proposed to build a "Chengxin Pavilion" in the pool, but the plan fell through. Now there is still a lot of room, but there is no room.


Zhaobi north is the Academy xingmen Lingong. Lingxingmen stone square is built on a 2-foot high platform, with 4 columns and 3 tops. On the east and west sides of the square are the ceremony gate and righteousness road, which is still in huilai No.1 Middle School and has become a witness of history. Lingxingmen east is the "Confucian door", choose this position is very exquisite, the front of the Huilai "Wenfeng".


Entering the Gate of Confucianism is the gate of halberd. There are about three halberd gates, "the temple is called the temple, and the gate is made by the king. It is called 'Halberd Gate'" (Huilai County Annals · School, Kangxi edition). In the forty-ninth year of Kangxi (1710), Magistrate Wang carried on rebuilding halberd gate.


Into the halberd door, the face is the temple (temple), in the Ming Jiajing nine years (1530) "Lizheng ritual". Temple "left and right hanging four wings, after 扆 gaofu, before wenfeng" (Kangxi edition of "Huilai County Annals · School"). Kangxi seven years (1668) in March, the temple wall, balustrades for typhoon damage, county magistrate Sun Rumou, training Chen Yingfeng led the squire donations repair. Hanging in the temple ministry imperial book "wan Shi Shi Biao" plaque. The state of Confucius was consecrated to the south, and to the east he appointed both the saint Yan Hui and the Saint Si Zi; to the west he appointed both the saint Zeng Shen and the Saint Meng Ke; to the east he consecrated the great sages Min Shen, Ran Yong, Duan Muci, Zhong You, Bu Shang; to the west he consecrated Ran Geng, Zai Yu, Ran Qiu, Guan Yan, and Zhusun.


The left and right sides of the temple are east and west, each with five wing rooms. In the 25th year of The Reign of Emperor Kangxi (1686), Li Longxiang donated his fortune to build the east and west hip and worshiping the sages and the Gods of Confucianism altogether 106. In the 38th year of The Reign of Emperor Kangxi (1699), Zha Zengrong, the county magistrate, donated funds to rebuild 5 wing houses in Xiwu. In the forty-ninth year of Kangxi (1710), Wang Yun, a magistrate, rebuilt Dongwu. Dongwu Qi Xianxian Dantai Minming, Yuan Xian, Nan Gong Shi, Shang Qu, Qi Diao Kai, Sima Geng, Youruo, Wu Ma Shi, Yan Xin, Cao 衈, Gongsun Chong, Qin Shang, Yan Gao, Rang Si Chi, Shi Zuoshu, Gongxia Shou, Hou Chu, Xi Rongjiang, Qin Zu, Xian Cheng, Gongsun Quzi, Yan Ji, Le


Hai Qian, Di Hei, Kong Zhong, Gongxi employees, Yan Zhipu, Shi Zhichang, Qin Fei, Shen Muchang, Yan Kuai; I was consecrated to gu Liangchi, Gao Tang Sheng, MAO Chang, Hou Cang, Du Zichun, Han Yu, Cheng Hao, Shao Yong, Sima Guang, Hu Anguo, Zhang Shi, Lu Jiuyuan, Xu Heng. West Wu si sages Mi not neat, GongYeChang, male part, high wood, fan, west red, beam Zhan, RanRu consummation, RanJi, carved lacquerware, ACTS of the father, carved lacquerware duo, ShangZe, ren, and LiangRu, and shoulder foot, wu single, father Abraham black Abraham, a father Abraham black slaughter), Xing flag, left people ying, zheng (zheng Xue Bang), the original port, clean, uncle zhong Kuai, and west and as, Gui xun, Chen Kang, jean zhang, Step uncle take; Zuo Qiuming, Gong Yanggao, Fu Sheng, Kong Anguo, Dong Zhongshu, Wang Tong, Zhou Dunyi, Ouyang Xiu, Zhang Zai, Cheng Yi, Hu Yuan, Zhu Xi, Lv Zuqian, CAI Shen, Zhen Dexiu, Xue Xuan, Wang Shouren, Chen Xianzhang, Hu Juren.


Temple into the "Ming Lun hall", is the lecture, was originally built by the county magistrate Lin Chunxiu. Minglun Hall "Zhu Zi shu, the left kitchen, the room has lying tablets, the right there are sacrificial vessels library" (Kangxi edition of Huilai County Annals · School). In the fifty-eighth year of Kangxi (1719), The oracle Huo Longkai and the sgentry donated money to rebuild Minglun Hall.


In front of Ming Lun Hall are east zhai and West Zhai on the left and right sides. Dongzhai, also known as Bowen Zhai, is the office of the county school teachers. It has three front halls and three back halls. The kitchen on the left has a garden. Xizhai, also known as Joliet's Chamber, is the office of the county school and discipline officers. It also has three front halls and three back halls. The gate faces south, and one has to go to The Ming Lun Hall through the west corner gate.


Behind the Ming Lun Hall is the Jing Yi Pavilion, which has a 4-foot-high platform and is dedicated to the imperial Jing Yi Zhen and the Commentary Wu Zhen. Jingyiting east is the Zunjing Pavilion, is the collection of books, is the light of you site determination.


To the east of Bowen Zhai is qi Shrine, built in 1530 during the reign of emperor Jiajing of Ming Dynasty. Originally built in the shooting garden behind the Palace, Ming Jiajing thirty years (1551), county magistrate Lin Chunxiu moved to build behind the Ming Lun Hall. Wanli thirty-sixth year (1608), county magistrate You Zhiguang moved to the east of Bowen Zhai. In the 25th year of Kangxi (1686), Li Longxiang donated to build shen brand. In the fifty-eighth year of Kangxi (1719), the oracle Huo Longkai and the squires donated money to rebuild the Shrine. It was renamed Chongsheng Temple during the reign of Yongzheng. Qi Shrine is dedicated to the sages of past dynasties. The "Four designs" are dedicated to the sages Yan Wu you, Zeng Dian, Kong Li and Meng Sun Jiao Gong Yi. "Four followers" was dedicated to zhou Fucheng, Cheng 珦, Zhu Song, CAI Yuanding.


In the west of the Academy is a "shooting garden" for students to learn shooting, located in the west of Xizhai and Xihip. After the establishment of "famous official temple" and "xiang Xian Temple", there is a land temple in the middle of the two temples. Minghuan Temple was originally on the left side of halberd Gate, and Xiang Xian Temple was on the right side of halberd Gate. You Zhiguang thought its size was too narrow, so in 1608, he moved the two shrines to the old site of Shopu. The Ming Huan Shrine had been blown down by a typhoon, so the discipline Gan Yanyuan raised money from the sgentry and rebuilt it in July 1674, the 13th year of Kangxi. In the 20th year of Kangxi (1681), the ancestral hall was rebuilt. Memorial tablets at Ming Huan Shrine: Huilai county magistrate of a county Jiang En fallen convicted of state department, the ministry of war leaders ZhuXie county, huilai county magistrate of a county Lin Chunxiu, huilai dictates of Amman, huilai county magistrate of a county zheng, engineering to make a big drop huilai Canon Shi Liuhong treasure, huilai county magistrate of a county qing xu straight up official department personnel give too taste temple, cruise HuiChao LuHaiQing tao yuan pet, letters patent grants light doctor lu the place such as the governor of guangdong and vice are DouChaYuan right suggestion and tong, guangdong Zhu Hongzuo, governor of Fujian and Zhejiang, Yang Zongren, governor of Guangdong, and Yang Wengan, governor of Guangdong were promoted to Huguang. Memorial tablets in Xiang Xian Temple: Song, jinshi fuqing county magistrate of a county of chaoyang cheng 方骥 Lin Xun, GongShi shangyou Confucianism discipline party a phoenix, a year Fang Tinglan, juren GongShiJu tianjin states fujian salt transport TongZhi a WengYanShou, juren supervisory suggestion and henan senate Xie Zheng a Mongolia, juren 鐤, child prodigy Su Fu, ChuShi zhang xu, official department administration doses of jinshi, the nanchuan county magistrate of a county party a should pray, juren Gao Tinghuan, SAN tin county magistrate of a county Xie Ting, gives a letter to the state Fang Guangyi, seal sichuan learns to teach tang Shixuan of encyclical, liangdang County magistrate Tang Pei, Xiang gives birth to Fang Bao.


In front of minghuan Temple is zaoxiao (provincial sacrificial sacrifice), and in the west of Zhimen, it used to be The field of shooting pu. Twice a year in the academy, deacons praise, save and kill animals here.


Located in the northwest of the original "view of the sea pavilion", where the original scholar Sun Xianmo's private place. Jiajing twenty-eight years (1548), scholar Zhou Jishou et al., worried about the breeding disturbance, in the county school is not good, then to tour according to the imperial history book request, stone for the boundary, years long stone down. After the magistrate Lin Chunxiu with podi as an exchange, to build pavilions on it. This place is the highest point in the city and can see the sea to the south, so it is called "viewing the sea Pavilion". Tomorrow qi four years (1624), county magistrate Yang Xiufang, teaching instructions Deng Richong donated salaries, in the "view of the haiting" site to build "wenchang Temple" (different from the "Wenchang Pavilion" in the south of the city). After the southern suburbs of wenchang Pavilion fire, changed the wenchang Temple worship Wenchang, Kuixing 2 god. In the fiftieth year of Kangxi (1711), Magistrate Wang carried on rebuilding wenchang Shrine.


The county school also has two social schools and one free school. She Xue was in the west of Qi Feng Fang, later converted into shuangzhong Temple; The other is at Yang Gong Temple in the eastern suburbs. Yixue is located in the east and west corner of the courtyard, yongzheng eight years (1730), county magistrate Zhang 玿 Beauty built, and donated to buy "thirteen Classics" (all), "Kangxi dictionary" and so on, for the students to use.


As Yongzheng version of "Huilai County Annals · This county School map said" evaluation: "Huidi School, mountain winding majestic, pan stagnant water water culls, autumn and winter is not dry. Right twin peaks, left cloud tower, quite clear shu Yi." It can be seen that the Ming and Qing Dynasties Huilai Academy is quite good.


Second, instructors and students


The county schools shall appoint one person to teach and one person to discipline, who shall be responsible for the teaching and management of the schools. Students in the school to study the history, Confucian worship, know filial piety, loyalty, propriety, integrity and shame, to take the civil service career road.


Teaching instructions, discipline has grade, a fixed salary. Ming system set up teaching instructions, discipline each member. In the early Qing Dynasty, the instruction was abolished in the 14th year of Shunzhi (1657) and restored in the 19th year of Kangxi (1680). County teaching instructions, training monthly salary "silver 31125 fen (except the amount of shortage), is actually disburse silver 2928 fen 8.5%, every leap plus silver 127.03 fen" (according to yongzheng edition "Huilai County annals" records). The salary is the same as that of county history, kwai Tan Inspection company and Beishan Post office. The school palace has 2 kind, monthly "work food silver 1424 money (except the amount shortage), the actual amount of silver 13265.3%, every leap plus silver 7.78.0%". Three jai men, monthly "work silver 36.22 (excluding the shortage), the actual silver expenditure is 34.21 coin 32.0%, every leap plus silver 129.4.5%". Two caterers, "working silver 13, 23, 33 cents per month (except the shortage), the actual amount of silver is 12, 26 cents per cent, plus seven cents per cent every month".


At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, there were quotas for the students enrolled in the county schools. Later, as the enrollment quota increased, grain rice was given to those who scored at the top of both the age and subject tests, called granaries Shansheng (廪生 for short). For those with increased quota input, they are called augmented growth (referred to as hyperplasia), and there are no granaries. Later of additional recruit students say attach students (abbreviation appendage). Qing Dynasty along Ming system, 廪生 month to receive 4 silver, two years old, two test results of excellent hyperplasia can be successively promoted to 廪生. Those who enter the school at the beginning shall be attached students. In Ming Dynasty, the enrollment quota of county schools was set at 20 linshan students and 20 zengguang students, with no quota attached. Qing Yan Ming example. County school students, 廪生 is a senior student, they have to take the test of the child "guarantee" (pledge to ensure that it has no risk, replace, loss, etc.) obligation, and get county school every 2 years to the imperial College to send a tribute to the opportunity.


According to yongzheng edition of "Huilai County Annals" records, yongzheng years, rated Huilai county school every two years one year tribute, every six years one tribute. Rated county 廪生20, hyperplasia 20, epiphytic without quota. At the rated age, 8 students were admitted into the essay, with incomplete study; Rated at the age of 8 into the wu Tong. Rated section examination into 8 children, with incomplete study. In the third year of Yongzheng (1725), Governor Nianxiyao came to Huilai with an order to supervise the schools. The number of students in Huilai county was increased, 4 wentong students were added, and 12 wentong students were selected from the year old and the scientific examination respectively. The school in Huilai County was upgraded to "middle school". Wu Tong Sheng still. County 廪生 have a certain treatment, each year "廪生 critical grain forty-eight liang (in addition to the amount of shortage), is real branch silver forty-five five money one point zero" (according to yongzheng edition "Huilai County annals" records).


In the fifty-fifth year of the Reign of Emperor Kangxi (1716), Yang Lin, the governor, asked him to take the entrance examination of one student at the rated age of jinghai Shouyu thousand households. Rated age to take the entrance examination of wu Tongsheng 1, dial into the school; Rated section examination into a child, with your school. In the fifth year of Yongzheng (1727), Jinghai guarded the imperial Palace military palace and changed chaoyang County history.


Yongzheng's edition of Huilai County records that county schools gave preferential treatment to the descendants of Confucius. History of Huilai County · Shengyi: "... To fifty-nine generations of Sun Yan, migrated to Huilai County Danidu Xiantang li and county seat Guanxiang, Wuning place, to the top of the yi si, born four: Kong Chuanlong, Kong Shi, Kong Jizhou, Kong Guangai. In this school, wenmiao Jun Ben, citing examples to petition constitutional approval, allow Kong surname excellent free from service, le Stone school."


Third, test


The purpose of running the school, teaching content and all kinds of regulations completely serve the imperial examination, the main purpose of running the school is to train students to participate in the "township examination".


County learning materials for the "authorized", learning rules for the official. After enrollment, the subjects for daily study were divided into rites, music, archery, charioteering, calligraphy and mathematics. One of the practice, must be familiar with the classics, history, law, zhao, etiquette books; Learning archery, the academy set up "archery garden" for practice; Xi book, according to the name into the law, 500 words a day; Number learning, must be proficient in the "nine calculations" and other methods. To the Qing Dynasty, the curriculum materials were mainly classics, history, the theory of nature and "contemporary prose" and so on. The sutras still has the five classics, the principle of "sex", "the four books", the university yan yi ", "zhuxi's encyclopedia", "king James xiao yan yi", "drive makes sex principle and substance", etc., in addition, the "ancient prose authentic", "GuWenYuan jian", "History As A Mirror of materia medica", "all previous dynasties advocate ZouYi", "four king James righteousness" and so on are all line should practice book.


County school enrollment. Along the Qing Dynasty system, the source of the county school is the tong sheng of the county (who did not take the examination of the "sheng" scholar, regardless of age, collectively referred to as tong Sheng). Tong sheng wants to obtain one's previous experience, must sign up to this county ceremony room, fill in name, native place, age, 3 generations resume, and after obtaining guarantee, first attend every February by informed county chief examination of county test. A total of 5 tests, the first "field", try the "four books" article 2, five words six rhyme try post a poem. The second "early reply", try "four books" one, "filial piety" on one, silently write "oracle wide training" more than 100 words. The third scene, "again", try the "four books" text or scripture 1, a law fu, five words and eight rhymes try post poem 1, silently write "encyclical instruction". The fourth and fifth scenes of "continuous reply", try "shi Wen" (namely eight-part essay), poetry and fu, classic theory, parallel prose. County test through, and then through April by the jurisdiction of the prefecture prefecture test chief. Take an examination of 4 in all, the first must take an examination of, after 3 optional take an examination of, try article, poem, fu, policy, the content such as theory. After admission, but also to participate in the school test by the political examiner. A total of 5 tests, the first "classics ancient field", try classics interpretation, historical theory, poetry. Second interview. The third try "four books" article two, five words six rhyme try post poem one. The fourth "answer", interview or eight-part essay one, two. The fifth scene, "Big reply", try the "four books" text 1, five words six rhyme poem 1, and silently write part of the "Encyclical Instruction". Hospital test, that is, county students (commonly known as xiucai), into the county school palace school.


During the period of school, in addition to sitting in the fast and working, the main task of the students is to take part in various examinations presided over by the school and local officials to obtain the qualification to take part in the township examination. The exams are divided into "monthly examination", "annual examination" and "scientific examination". The monthly examination is organized by the school or county magistrate to assess students' academic performance. The annual examination was presided over by scholastic administration, which stipulated that the results should be carried out according to the "six grade deposed law", and the following four grades should be punished or deposed. The first test and second test, the first try "four books" wen yi, "five Classics" wen yi, five words six rhyme poem a; Try again "four books" wen 1, five words eight rhyme poem 1. The examination is held once every three years and is conducted for seven days by scholastic administration one year before the test. On the third day, we had a retest of Tong Sheng. On the fourth day, we had a retest of Tong Sheng. On the fifth day, we had a retest of Tong Sheng who had acquired first-class granaries, granaries, and supernataries. Those who rank first, second and third in the scientific examination are allowed to take part in the township examination held in the provincial capital the following year. The student that did not obtain qualification, can again by the school politics organization before the township test "record division" and "record legacy" two make-up examination opportunity, if be admitted, also can attend the township test. Those who are admitted for the township test are "juren".


Four, funds


County school by the court ordered the county department according to the "rated" allocated to the school field, by the county department on behalf of tenancy, on behalf of rent collection as school funds.


Xutian, located in Longxidu, local name "Lin Shi Yang", was occupied by local tyrants for many times. In the thirty-second year of Jiajing (1553), Lin Chunxiu, the county magistrate, applied to the superior and got the support of he Yuanshu, the deputy envoy to the seaway, and allocated 81 mu 6 minutes 2 centimetres of school land.


Chen Yuanzhuang, a righteous man, sent the field to school, and rented 44 stone fields in Shabori, as a fare for the imperial examination.


Zheng Yiyuan, a righteous man, sent a field to school, and rented 20 stone fields, with 33 mu of capital meters, as the temple (Master temple) oil lamp costs and gate food wages and other expenses.


Scholar Hu Guangqi sent the school field, rent 84 stone, with 78 acres of rice 3.1cm 1.1mm, as the temple oil lamp costs.


Learning mountain, in youtou capital bound, no huilai county belongs to Chaoyang county learning. During the Reign of Emperor Jiajing in the Ming Dynasty, Tian Rucheng was appointed to the School in Huilai County.


To learn, in the county huizheng bridge north guanshan, namely guanghua village site, guanpu park 5. In the thirty-third year of Jiajing (1554) Lin Chunxiu was assigned to the county school.


The shop, which covers an area of 5 mu, is outside the west gate of the county seat and was once occupied by fang Xizhou and others. In the thirty-third year of Jiajing (1554), Lin Chunxiu found out that the shop houses were assigned to the county school, including: 5 inside the gate of the front street outside the west gate, 34 inside the gate of the back street, 32 behind the gate of the stone brand straw houses, 38 outside the gate of the stone brand south straw houses.


Qianqiu town garden, rent silver 228 money, take the next meter 17 mu 4 minutes, as the cost of the class.


Feng Bin Xingtian, Yongzheng version of "Huilai County annals" : "Feng bin Xingtian in Zhoutian, land name mountain, cattle road ridge and other places, seventeen stone; Shenquan Mountain and other places three stone eight bucket, lai Yanxing, Lai Shangxing according to this field. Haifeng county magistrate Bai Zhang department county affairs, donated salaries to buy you first all field twenty-three mu three points, the 'family living'. In Longxidu, Tang Yao sent Confucianism with respect to the inner field, which was the capital of scholars. Down the road, down the dumps have been stacked and bin xing's gifts have been either carried out or abolished. Together with our official knowledge of the county affairs, Zhang Yuan, we have chosen the county affairs of every member of your family. The rent has been collected and the bin xing will be held in Ming Lun Hall on every big occasion. As incomes increased, it was also a great event to hold a grand ceremony in every great year.


Five, the sacrifice


In addition to daily study, county students also participate in the "release ceremony" of Confucius on the 4th day of February and the 4th day of August every year. In 1928, the president of Peking University, CAI Yuanpei, proposed to stop the ceremony and changed it to August 27, the birthday of Confucius. Thus, the ceremony was abolished.


Every spring and autumn, two sacrificial activities are very solemn. Kangxi edition of "Huilai County annals · Rank qi" : "sacrificial period: spring and Autumn on ding Day. With zhong, with four is also; With d, take the image of Yin fire civilization also. Three days before the ceremony, do not drink alcohol, do not ru hun, loose zhai; Two days, bath and change clothes, stay in other room, to zhai; One day, but li Qi thing. The day before sending sacrifices to school, the deacon set up incense table, lead praise to sacrifice officials, often serve the province of sacrifice (that is, slaughter) praise province, then slaughter, with a little hair and blood in the plate, the rest of the hair and blood in a purifier storage, to bury the sacrifice. The cover takes the hair for purity, and the blood for murder." Sacrifice: 9 swine, 6 sheep, 2 deer, 1 rabbit and millet, millet, rice, millet, millet, millet, millet, millet, millet, millet, fish, jujube, chestnut, hazel, cornstarch, bamboo shoot, onion, celery, leek, wine, salt, incense, candle, etc., 25 liang of silver per time.


Sacrificial vessels are: jue, xing, xing, GUI, Trip, bean, zu, Bar, big xiang case, candlestick, wish version, fasting card, washbasin, zhuo wash sacrificial vessel basin.


Sacrifices included: silk, sheep, swine, deer, rabbit, martial treasure, 'fu' treasure, GUI bao, trip, deer's breasts, ligustilius, dates, corbel, chestnut and bean treasure.


On trip 1, kung 2, GUI 2, silk 1, jue 3, beans 8.


Four things and two pieces of each display: sheep a, swine a, upstairs a, xing 2, Trip 6, composition 2, GUI 2, silk 1, jue 3, beans 6.


Five on each side: swine - a, kung - a, silk - a, xing - a, trip - 4, beans - 4 and jue - 3.


East and west hip altar furnishings: swine one, 'fu' one, GUI one, on four, beans four, silk one, jue three.


What is introduced above is the sacrificial situation of kangxi's reign. With the development of economy, in the reign of Yongzheng, the standard of sacrifice was further advanced. Among them, the first teacher is displayed (according to the sacrificial ware map of yongzheng 3rd year department) : Lishen silk 1 (white), white magujue 3, niu 1, Yang 1, swine 1, deng 1, xing 2, composition 2, GUI 2, Trip 10, bean 10, wine 1. Obviously more exquisite than kangxi years, other not a fine list.


Kai Shrine, Ming Huan temple, xiang Xian temple sacrifice, in the "Spring and Autumn month on the night of ding Zi sacrifice, take the son not father eat righteousness also, sent teaching first sacrifice, the beginning of the temple. Holy display: sheep a, swine a, xing 2, Trip 8, beans 8, GUI 2, silk 1, jue 3; East and west matching from sacrificial position display: swine meat 2, fish 2, xing 1, Trip 4, beans 4, GUI 1, silk 1, jue 3. Mong Huan Temple display: sheep, swine, 'fu', GUI, Trip four, beans four, silk one, jue three. Displayed on Xiangxian Temple: sheep, swine, 'fu', GUI one, Trip four, beans four, silk one, jue three.


Encyclical Liang Tingzuo a poem, recorded the twenty-one year of kangxi (1682) sacrifice to the grand occasion of the ancestral hall: "Midsummer chengjia life, Qin Palace was orchestra. Quaint ye Ni father, qing folding ritual qunxian. 41, To micron, dare to live in front of hundred flowers. Be free to be fateful for trip. Phoenix has 1000 ren, rebuked the bird 鷃 fu he 跧. Gu Zhan Phoenix feather, flourishing world lightly. So far there are relics, tube yue and phase. There are former sage in the city, the longterm beans with several feast. Jac 禴 jin jin. Spring and Autumn both Canon, four zhongli is also complete. Goshule was a constant, but Hu was a constant. I will look forward to ya fan, Yang Zhi Cheng jian. Group of public yu Shuang, so far Changlan Tsuen. The fragrance of the room, Jude will be passed on. Hor dare to humble if zi, auspicious for the fold. Julio, qi Zi and Nan Stem. In the past for the country tree, now for xiayu wood extension. Zhuo zai second generation, such as the sun li midheaven. Not only qin Mingde, also to vibration first. Would like to learn the sea wave, shunting ten thousand PI springs."


After nearly 400 years, the schools in Huilai county stopped running with the abolition of the imperial examination system, which had been inherited for more than 1,000 years.